Wednesday, 30 November 2016

Inside tiny tubes, water turns solid when it should be boiling

It’s a well-known fact that water, at sea level, starts to boil at a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit, or 100 degrees Celsius. And scientists have long observed that when water is confined in very small spaces, its boiling and freezing points can change a bit, usually dropping by around 10 C or so.
But now, a team at MIT has found a completely unexpected set of changes: Inside the tiniest of spaces — in carbon nanotubes whose inner dimensions are not much bigger than a few water molecules — water can freeze solid even at high temperatures that would normally set it boiling.
The discovery illustrates how even very familiar materials can drastically change their behavior when trapped inside structures measured in nanometers, or billionths of a meter. And the finding might lead to new applications — such as, essentially, ice-filled wires — that take advantage of the unique electrical and thermal properties of ice while remaining stable at room temperature.
The results are being reported today in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, in a paper by Michael Strano, the Carbon P. Dubbs Professor in Chemical Engineering at MIT; postdoc Kumar Agrawal; and three others.
“If you confine a fluid to a nanocavity, you can actually distort its phase behavior,” Strano says, referring to how and when the substance changes between solid, liquid, and gas phases. Such effects were expected, but the enormous magnitude of the change, and its direction (raising rather than lowering the freezing point), were a complete surprise: In one of the team’s tests, the water solidified at a temperature of 105 C or more. (The exact temperature is hard to determine, but 105 C was considered the minimum value in this test; the actual temperature could have been as high as 151 C.)
“The effect is much greater than anyone had anticipated,” Strano says.
It turns out that the way water’s behavior changes inside the tiny carbon nanotubes — structures the shape of a soda straw, made entirely of carbon atoms but only a few nanometers in diameter — depends crucially on the exact diameter of the tubes. “These are really the smallest pipes you could think of,” Strano says. In the experiments, the nanotubes were left open at both ends, with reservoirs of water at each opening.
Even the difference between nanotubes 1.05 nanometers and 1.06 nanometers across made a difference of tens of degrees in the apparent freezing point, the researchers found. Such extreme differences were completely unexpected. “All bets are off when you get really small,” Strano says. “It’s really an unexplored space.”
In earlier efforts to understand how water and other fluids would behave when confined to such small spaces, “there were some simulations that showed really contradictory results,” he says. Part of the reason for that is many teams weren’t able to measure the exact sizes of their carbon nanotubes so precisely, not realizing that such small differences could produce such different outcomes.
In fact, it’s surprising that water even enters into these tiny tubes in the first place, Strano says: Carbon nanotubes are thought to be hydrophobic, or water-repelling, so water molecules should have a hard time getting inside. The fact that they do gain entry remains a bit of a mystery, he says.

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Friday, 25 November 2016

Microprocessors And Microcontrollers : Architecture, Programming And System Design 8085, 8086, 8051, 8096 -

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Thursday, 24 November 2016

The world’s most innovative universities

US institutions top the inaugural Reuters Top 100 Most Innovative Universities table.

StanfordMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard have topped a new ranking of the most innovative universities.
The inaugural Top 100 Most Innovative Universities ranking from Reuters has been revealed following the publication of four top-15 tables based on innovation from Times Higher Education.
The US comes out top of Reuters’ table of 100 institutions, taking nine of the top 10 positions. The sole non-US institution is Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) in 10th place.
Imperial College London is the highest-ranked UK university in the list in 11th place, followed by the University of Cambridge in 25th and the University of Oxford in 40th.  
The ranking aims to identify which institutions contribute the most to science and technology and have the greatest impact on the global economy. It is based on 10 patent and research-related metrics, which have been compiled using proprietary data and analysis tools from the Intellectual Property and Science division of Thomson Reuters.
Elsewhere in Europe, Switzerland is a stand-out performer. With three universities on the list and a population of just over 8 million, it has more top 100 innovative universities per capita than any other country in the world. Its top institution, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, sits in 27th place.  
Japan is home to nine of the universities on the list – more than any other country except the US. Osaka University, its highest-ranked institution, is at number 18.

Reuters Top 15 Most Innovative Universities 2015 results

  Rank    Institution  Country
  1    Stanford University     United States  
  2    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)      United States  
  3    Harvard University    United States  
  4    University of Washington    United States  
  5    University of Michigan System     United States  
  6    Northwestern University    United States  
  7    University of Texas System    United States  
  8    University of Wisconsin System    United States  
  9    University of Pennsylvania    United States  
  10    Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology (KAIST)    South Korea  
  11    Imperial College London    United Kingdom  
  12    Pohang University of Science & Technology (POSTECH)    South Korea  
  13    University of California System     United States  
  14    University of Southern California    United States  
  15    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill    United States  

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Wednesday, 23 November 2016

Find a PhD: how to choose the right doctorate

Selecting the right doctorate is crucial for success. Robert MacIntosh and Kevin O'Gorman share top 10 tips on how to pick a PhD

Take your time

A doctorate is for life not just for Christmas, so avoid making rash commitments in the heat of the moment.
Don’t rush into it, but if you've been thinking about it for some time there is probably more to it than just the desire to be called doctor.
he idea of doing a PhD might have sneaked up on you or it might have been loitering with intent for a while.
One way or another you need to figure out how to move from "thinking about it" to "doing something about it". It’s not that difficult, but it not necessarily obvious because you'll need to understand how academics think.

Choose your quest

Choose a topic that genuinely fascinates you. This will sustain you in the bleak mid-winter of your doctoral quest.
Your doctorate has to be like a quest. It should be about something that you really, really want to figure out. That might seem straightforward but most people without a doctorate struggle to articulate their quest in a way that would get them a doctorate. Typically, applicants paint their quests with far too broad a brush. Something like :"I want to do a doctorate in strategy" or "I want to study social inclusion" can be simultaneously true yet woefully inadequate as a starting point for a doctoral proposal.
Doctorates are awarded on the basis of contributing something new to our existing knowledge base. Given that we have been researching and producing doctorates in management for decades and in the social sciences more generally for a lot longer, such novelty usually comes in modestly-sized packages. You’ll have to do some research in order to figure out what to research.

Try before you buy

Take multiple doctoral topics out for a first date then choose wisely. It’s a lifetime commitment.
Even if you don’t have access to a university’s library database, the wonders of GoogleScholar should allow you to dip into the literature and browse published research on the topic of your quest. Do this for four or five variants of your potential topic. Make sure to check that the academic version of your noble quest still intrigues you and that heavy research articles on the topic don’t bore you to tears. 

Mind the gap

Having chosen a broad area, identify a specific gap that is not yet fully explored in the literature. 
To pass your doctorate you will need to contribute new knowledge about your chosen topic. That means you need to be able to establish what is usually referred to as "a gap in the literature" -. something that has not yet been researched. You need to be able to articulate what previous studies have shown and use this as the means of pointing toward things that are not yet known. Helpfully, academic papers often conclude with a call for further research on something or other. This might be a useful starting point.
However, you shouldn't rely on others to solve your problem. Whenever you read anything - an article, a book, a chapter or a thesis - write out your own summary of what they've told you and what you still don't know.

Start with a researchable question

Avoid rhetorical questions or ironic provocations - make sure your question is clear, crisp and entitled to a question mark.
Good research questions help by (a) structuring your thinking and (b) suggesting ways of building a way of answering your question.

Imagine your ideal supervisor

Do you want somebody inspirational and argumentative but vague, or a highly-structured project manager who will nag you into submission?
A supervisor to supervisee relationship which will run for three years or more is fraught with potential problems and pitfalls. You don’t need to be best friends, but you do need a productive working relationship. This rest is at least as much on you and your preferences as those of a potential supervisor.

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Friday, 18 November 2016

The best universities in the world are truly global institutions – ones that attract students and scholars from all over the world and collaborate with leading departments no matter where they are based.
All of the universities that feature in our World University Rankings place internationalisation high on their agenda. But which ones are the most international?
Qatar University tops the list, which is based on the results of the “international outlook” indicator in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2015-2016, while the UK is the nation that does the best on this measure overall.
The international outlook indicator considers each institution’s proportion of international staff, proportion of international students and proportion of research papers published with at least one co-author from another country. All the institutions that feature in the top 800 of the overall 2015-2016 ranking have been considered.
Below is a list of the 200 most international universities in the world. Visit the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2015-2016 to see the results for all 800 institutions and view the full methodology.
Top 5 most international universities in the world 
 Rank  Institution  Country  International outlook  WUR 2015-2016 rank 
1Qatar UniversityQatar99.9601–800
2University of LuxembourgLuxembourg99.8=193
3University of Hong KongHong Kong99.5=44
4École Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSwitzerland98.631
5University of GenevaSwitzerland98.5=131

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Thursday, 17 November 2016

Get your CV on top of the pile

It’s time to write that winning resume. Here are some basic guidelines.

A poorly written curriculum vitae (CV), despite the glowing achievements it may contain, will almost certainly create a negative first impression on a potential employer. After all, your CV is the initial point of contact companies have for judging how well you present yourself. Here are some basic guidelines to create the best line of communication.

Watch your length
Keep it as short and relevant as possible. Your CV should be about one to two pages — the most, three pages if you are very experienced and need to list a large number of deals and accomplishments.
There is also no need for a photograph; in fact, many employers and recruitment firms are put off by them.
List personal information
Include your name, full address, telephone numbers (day/evening/mobile), email address, and date of birth. In the event of an interview opportunity, you want to be immediately contactable.
Order your content
Keep it concise; split your CV into sections such as personal information, qualifications, employment history, and interests, in that order. Include brief, one-line explanations for any gaps in the timeline on the CV; you do not want your CV to leave any unanswered questions. Do not assume that the person reading your CV will know what you did in a role based on your job title; always include a few bullet points detailing the tasks that you covered. It is your job to educate the reader by detailing specific tasks, responsibilities, and achievements for each of your previous positions.
Prioritize your past experience
Be specific about your responsibilities in each of your roles. For every position, outline your personal achievements and include the assignments you worked on and any profit and loss generated for the business. It is also important to state the geographical coverage of your job functions — for example, market risk in Indonesia. Business coverage, such as retail or investment banking, should be explicitly mentioned too — for example, Head of Operational Risk (Global Markets). If your position requires work on multiple products or segments, mention the percentage split of your work. Any relevant work experience overseas must be listed, even a six-month posting.
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Monday, 14 November 2016

Learn About Power Theft 
And How It Can Be Curbed

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Celebrate Children's Day! 
Promise to Gift Books to Children 


Sunday, 13 November 2016

New Edition Released 

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Friday, 11 November 2016

National Education Day: Why is it celebrated on November 11?

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, union minister for education in France as a guest of the government was received by French Minister of Education Jean Berthoin. Express archive photo
As a mark of respect and to commemorate the birth anniversary of freedom fighter and independent India’s first Education Minister Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the nation will be celebrating the National Education Day on November 11.

From 1947 to 1958, he served as the first education minister of the independent India.
Maulana Azad considered schools as laboratories which produce future citizens of the country and, therefore, emphasised on quality education. He strongly advocated universal primary education, girls’ education, free and compulsory education for all children upto the age of 14, vocational training and technical education.
Some facts about Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
— His real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin
— In 1912, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad started a weekly journal in Urdu called Al-Hilal to increase the revolutionary recruits
— For his invaluable contribution to the nation as a freedom fighter and as an educationist, he was awarded India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1992.
— He established most of the major cultural and literary academies we have today, including the Sangeet Natak Academy, Lalit Kala Academy, Sahitya Academy as well as the Indian Council for Cultural Relations.
— The first IIT, IISc, School of Planning and Architecture and the University Grants Commission were established under his tenure.
UGC has asked universities across India to celebrate November 11 as National Education Day by organising seminars, symposia, essay writing, elocution competitions, workshops and rallies with banners, cards and slogans on the importance of education and the nation’s commitment to all aspects of education.

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Thursday, 10 November 2016

Interactive Periodic Table Reveals Exactly How We Use All Those Elements

We all know how common elements like oxygen and helium are used in every day life. But gallium? Selenium? Rhodium? Keith Enevoldsen has created an interactive periodic table that illustrates exactly where you may encounter even obscure elements on the chart.

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Wednesday, 9 November 2016

Microsoft Exam 70-398

Buy Exam Ref. 70-398: Planning For And Managing Devices In The Enterprise at PHI Learning :

"For this book, we focused on two primary objectives; write about exam skills with some real-world information throughout and approach each exam skill from an exam item writer mentality. We asked ourselves, if we were writing exam questions for this topic, which questions would we write? How would we test somebody’s knowledge of a topic? We thought about how each of the concepts applied in the real-world, in your day-to-day job tasks. Then, we incorporated that information in the book to make it easily consumable. We think we ended up with a good balance of information and exam preparation material. Good luck on the exam!

This book covers every skill identified as measured on the exam web page, but it does not cover every exam question. Only the Microsoft exam team has access to the exam questions themselves and Microsoft regularly adds new questions to the exam, making it impossible to cover specific questions. You should consider this book a supplement to your relevant real-world experience and other study materials. If you encounter a topic in this book that you do not feel completely comfortable with, use the links you’ll find in text to find more information and take the time to research and study the topic. Great information is available on MSDN, TechNet, and in blogs and forums. "

- Brian Svidergol, Bob Clements,Charles Pluta

Tuesday, 8 November 2016

Birthday of Marie Curie

Yesterday was the birthday of Marie Curie, who was born in Warsaw, Poland, in 1867. Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only person to win Nobels in two different sciences. She studied physics at the Sorbonne in Paris and worked in the lab of future Nobel laureate Gabriel Lippmann. For her thesis she decided to study a strange phenomenon discovered in 1896 by Henri Becquerel in uranium. In 1898 she discovered that thorium also exhibited this property, which she called radioactivity. That same year, working with her husband Pierre Curie, Marie discovered the radioactive elements polonium and radium. In 1903 Marie Curie earned her PhD—and the Nobel Prize in Physics, which she shared with her husband and Becquerel for their study of radioactivity. Three years later Pierre died in a road accident. Marie succeeded him as professor of physics at the Sorbonne, becoming the first woman professor at the university. In 1911 Curie was the lone winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the isolation of radium. For the rest of her career Curie studied radioactive substances and their potential medical applications. Unfortunately she did not know the health dangers of her research, and as a result she died of leukemia in 1934. Her death came just months after her daughter Irène co-discovered new radioactive isotopes, work that would win her the Chemistry Nobel the following year.

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Q&A with a Medical Physicist — Celebrating the International Day of Medical Physics

Behind the radiation machines used to fight cancer are specialized scientists who bring together medicine and physics to keep patients safe. These highly-trained health professionals play a key role in maximizing the benefits of radiation medicine while reducing the potential for harm.
To celebrate the International Day of Medical Physics today and its aim to raise public awareness about medical physics, Ahmed Meghzifene, Head of the Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section at IAEA, answered a few questions about medical physicists and what they do and how the IAEA contributes to their work.
What is a medical physicist?
Medical physicists (MP) are well-trained specialists who work with very sophisticated technology used in radiation medicine to diagnose and treat patients with diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. MPs need to have knowledge of both the human body and physics principles, and how to apply these principles for diagnosing or treating patients. So in some sense, an MP is a bridge that connects medicine and physics.
A doctor working in radiation medicine practices medicine and is focused mainly with the diagnosis and treatment of disease. A medical physicist focuses on the treatment delivery, ensuring its effectiveness and patient protection.
What does a medical physicist do?
In nuclear and radiation medicine doctors rely on sophisticated machines with very specific requirements that need to be properly tested, installed and calibrated to benefit patients and keep them safe.
For example, for machine calibration, MPs do calculations and measurements to determine the exact dose of a radiation beam of a machine and use it to safely treat a patient. If you deliver too much radiation then it could cause more harm than good to the patients. If you deliver too little, then it won’t be enough to destroy all the cancer cells, and the treatment will not be as effective, which could cause the recurrence of the cancer. So machine calibration is very important.

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Saturday, 5 November 2016

Cisco’s key to CSR success: Aligning global CSR strategies with local objectives

Cisco’s key to CSR success: Aligning global CSR strategies with local objectives

Its CSR strategy doesn’t just stop at furthering global CSR objectives. It also extends to becoming involved in national initiatives

Since its establishment in the country, Cisco India has been committed to drawing upon its technology leadership to give back to society. From cutting-edge telemedicine initiatives to children’s health care programmes to childcare services, Cisco India takes the lead in integrating with the country’s recent CSR law and adapting and extending the reach of global CSR strategies to ensure maximum impact. Not only this, Cisco India aligns its social responsibility strategies with the company’s focus on government initiatives such as Digital India to ensure maximum positive impact on the community it operates within.
NextGen spoke to VC Gopalratnam, head of Cisco Civic Council in India and member of Cisco Foundation for the Asia-Pacific Japan and China region, to understand the company’s views on the impact of the law on the Indian CSR landscape as well as Cisco’s initiatives in the local CSR domain.
Welcoming the CSR mandate While the ministry of corporate affairs released the draft rules governing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) under the New Companies Act 2013, CSR has long been an important area of focus for Cisco India, thanks to the importance it has been given at the global level. In 2015, Cisco was named in Fortune magazine’s first ever “Change the World” list, which recognises companies that have made significant progress in addressing major social problems as part of their core business strategy.
“The Companies Act was less of a challenge for firms like Cisco that were already very active in CSR in India prior to the law’s enactment,” says Gopalratnam. “The landmark legislation, although a mandate, gives corporates in the country the flexibility to implement activities that fall within their strong-suits. This law has been perceived positively within the organisation as another opportunity to give back to the community.”

Extending the power of global CSR strategies for local impact

As an organisation, Cisco sees digitisation as a powerful enabler of change when it comes to solving some of the world’s most pressing problems.  The company states that its CSR vision is ‘to empower people and societies to thrive in this new digitised economy to create exponential social, environmental, and business impact’. Given this goal, at a global level, Cisco has identified five focus areas to function as core pillars of their CSR strategy: Governance and Ethics, Our People, Society, Environment, and Supply Chain. In India, the company’s CSR initiatives are focussed on three core areas:

a. People

Childcare services are offered at the Bengaluru campus to help employees put their families first. The centre provides summer camp facilities for school-aged children and facilities for children of three to six months.
The Bengaluru campus also functions as a comprehensive onsite health centre location to provide primary medical care integrated with alternative medicine. Services include:

  •   Primary and family medical care
  •   Lab services and travel medicine
  •   Physical therapy
  •   Tele-health

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People Management Skills Every Manager Needs To Succeed

Success as a manager will primarily depend on Soft Skills. What is this talent that means more than experience and technical prowess ...