Saturday, 31 December 2016

PHI Learning Wishes All 
A Very 
Happy New Year!
Welcome the new year with a vow to make books a part of our lives!

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Monday, 26 December 2016

Saturday, 17 December 2016

Friday, 16 December 2016

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Thursday, 15 December 2016

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Tuesday, 13 December 2016

India to have highest salary hike in Asia Pacific in ’17

India and Vietnam will have the HHHnext year with a projected rise of 10.8 per cent and 9.2 per cent respectively among Asia Pacific’s emerging economies, according to a report by a global consulting firm.
A report by Mercer has forecast a 10.8 per cent salary increase in India and 9.2 per cent in Vietnam in 2017.
Salary increases in Hong Kong and Singapore, Asia’s financial hubs, are forecast to see a 4.2 per cent and 4.1 per cent increase, respectively, said Mercer, in their report “Compensation Planning for 2017.”
Japan is forecast to receive the lowest increase of 2.2 per cent, followed by New Zealand 2.8 per cent and Australia 2.9 per cent, said the report based on Mercer’s Annual Total Remuneration Survey (TRS), and its bi-annual Market Pulse Surveys.
A closer look at pay parity, in terms of annual total cash, says that there are now several ‘tiers’ of countries across the region.
For example, starting salaries begin at USD 30,000 per annum in Australia, Japan and South Korea, and rise steeply as employees reach senior levels, often reaching USD 250,000 to USD 350,000 per annum.
Starting salaries are much lower, often just USD 5,000, in low-cost manufacturing bases, but again increase significantly at top management levels.
Puneet Swani, Partner and Growth Markets Talent Leader at Mercer said: “Hiring, retaining and engaging skilled talent will continue to be a top priority, especially for consumption-driven industries such as life sciences and consumer goods.”
“Changing business models and restructuring in the financial services has meant that the sector may not be hiring at rates seen in the last three years, but we continue to see highest level of pay increases as retaining high-performing talent has become even more critical,” he said.
“We also find companies deleveraging pay in the wake of increased regulatory scrutiny of bonus payouts, thereby reducing year-end bonuses and significantly increasing base pay instead to reduce excessive risk-taking and discretion,” he added.
Mercer, a global consulting leader in health, wealth and careers, is a subsidiary of New York-listed Marsh & McLennan Companies.

Wednesday, 7 December 2016

Saturday, 3 December 2016

Thursday, 1 December 2016


As far back as the late 1800s, U.S. physics teachers expressed many of the same ideas about physicseducation reform that are advocated today. However, several popular reform efforts eventually failed to have wide impact, despite strong and enthusiastic support within the physics education community. Broad-scale implementation of improved instructional models today may be just as elusive as it has been in the past, and for similar reasons. Although excellent instructional models exist and have been available for decades, effective and scalable plans for transforming practice on a national basis have yet to be developed and implemented. Present-day teachers, education researchers, and policy makers can find much to learn from past efforts, both in their successes and their failures. To this end, we present a brief outline of some key ideas in U.S. physics education during the past 130 years. We address three core questions that are prominent in the literature: (a) Why and how should physics be taught? (b) What physicsshould be taught? (c) To whom should physics be taught? Related issues include the role of the laboratory and attempts to make physics relevant to everyday life. We provide here only a brief summary of the issues and debates found in primary-source literature; an extensive collection of historical resources on physics education is available at

Why and how should physics be taught?

When courses in physics (then called “natural philosophy”) were introduced as part of the curriculum in the early academies and very first high schools in the early 1800s, the justification was explicitly practical: knowledge of physical phenomena was taught so people could put it to use in their everyday lives. By the early 1880s, however, high school physics teachers would express a multitude of reasons for teaching the subject, including that of training the mind “to habits of accurate observation and of precise and clear reasoning.” Hands-on laboratory activities came to be seen as necessary, so that physics students could learn “how to observe, compare, and draw conclusions of themselves,” or, in short, “to catch the spirit of inquiry.
Around this time the so-called “inductive method” was widely favored, referring to experimentation that led to student-generated models and explanations for observed phenomena: “[W]e first observe the phenomena sharply and then seek for a cause or for the law according to which the forces act….if the guess is a definite one, definite conclusions (deductions) can be drawn from it which will lead to new observations or experiments….we…continue until one explanation remains that is consistent with all our knowledge and stands all the tests we are able to apply.
Laboratory-based instruction spread rapidly among both high schools and colleges. The well-known “Harvard Descriptive List,” a laboratory guide written by E. H. Hall, incorporated many questions, specifically designed to lead physics students to develop models and explanations to account for their observations: “[I]t has been thought best…to put the student, so far as is practicable, into the attitude of an investigator seeking for things unforetold….He should not be told what he is expected to see, but he must usually be told in what direction to look. He should be required to draw inferences from his experiments.
A generation later, these themes were revisited by research physicists such as the University of Chicago’s R. A. Millikan, who had a special interest in improving both high school and college physics instruction. Millikan succinctly expressed the views of many physics educators regarding the value of physics, saying that:
“[T]he material with which it deals is almost wholly available to the student , so that in it he can be taught to observe, and to begin to interpret  the world in which he lives, instead of merely memorizing text-book facts, and someone else’s formulations of so-called laws….The main object of the course in physics is to teach the student to  to begin to construct for himself…an orderly world out of the chaotic jumble of phenomena which observation presents to him” [emphasis in original].
As these various quotes indicate, early instructional ideals were often envisioned as being based on the inductive method. However, around the turn of the century, an increased emphasis on college preparation along with a growing number of topics to be covered led high school physics to focus excessively on abstract principles and mathematical computations having little physical context, and to a decreasing emphasis on scientific investigation. Cookbook-style laboratory activities took the form of step-by-step procedures, encouraging rote practice and mindless manipulations of laboratory apparatus, rather than inductive reasoning. By 1906, many physics educators had concluded that instruction in physics had gone seriously astray, departing from its original objectives, and they argued strongly for a return to those objectives. For example, physicist C. R. Mann advocated laboratory-based investigations that would engage students’ intuitive thinking, promote inductive reasoning, and help students experience the “spirit of science,” which he defined as a belief that “the world is a harmonious and well-coordinated organism and that it is possible…to find harmony and coordination.” The “New Movement Among Physics Teachers” attempted to gather support for reforms aimed at goals such as this. Later, the increasingly popular “project method” saw students engaged in practical investigations of topics that might arise from their everyday lives and experiences. 
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Wednesday, 30 November 2016

Inside tiny tubes, water turns solid when it should be boiling

It’s a well-known fact that water, at sea level, starts to boil at a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit, or 100 degrees Celsius. And scientists have long observed that when water is confined in very small spaces, its boiling and freezing points can change a bit, usually dropping by around 10 C or so.
But now, a team at MIT has found a completely unexpected set of changes: Inside the tiniest of spaces — in carbon nanotubes whose inner dimensions are not much bigger than a few water molecules — water can freeze solid even at high temperatures that would normally set it boiling.
The discovery illustrates how even very familiar materials can drastically change their behavior when trapped inside structures measured in nanometers, or billionths of a meter. And the finding might lead to new applications — such as, essentially, ice-filled wires — that take advantage of the unique electrical and thermal properties of ice while remaining stable at room temperature.
The results are being reported today in the journal Nature Nanotechnology, in a paper by Michael Strano, the Carbon P. Dubbs Professor in Chemical Engineering at MIT; postdoc Kumar Agrawal; and three others.
“If you confine a fluid to a nanocavity, you can actually distort its phase behavior,” Strano says, referring to how and when the substance changes between solid, liquid, and gas phases. Such effects were expected, but the enormous magnitude of the change, and its direction (raising rather than lowering the freezing point), were a complete surprise: In one of the team’s tests, the water solidified at a temperature of 105 C or more. (The exact temperature is hard to determine, but 105 C was considered the minimum value in this test; the actual temperature could have been as high as 151 C.)
“The effect is much greater than anyone had anticipated,” Strano says.
It turns out that the way water’s behavior changes inside the tiny carbon nanotubes — structures the shape of a soda straw, made entirely of carbon atoms but only a few nanometers in diameter — depends crucially on the exact diameter of the tubes. “These are really the smallest pipes you could think of,” Strano says. In the experiments, the nanotubes were left open at both ends, with reservoirs of water at each opening.
Even the difference between nanotubes 1.05 nanometers and 1.06 nanometers across made a difference of tens of degrees in the apparent freezing point, the researchers found. Such extreme differences were completely unexpected. “All bets are off when you get really small,” Strano says. “It’s really an unexplored space.”
In earlier efforts to understand how water and other fluids would behave when confined to such small spaces, “there were some simulations that showed really contradictory results,” he says. Part of the reason for that is many teams weren’t able to measure the exact sizes of their carbon nanotubes so precisely, not realizing that such small differences could produce such different outcomes.
In fact, it’s surprising that water even enters into these tiny tubes in the first place, Strano says: Carbon nanotubes are thought to be hydrophobic, or water-repelling, so water molecules should have a hard time getting inside. The fact that they do gain entry remains a bit of a mystery, he says.

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Friday, 25 November 2016

Microprocessors And Microcontrollers : Architecture, Programming And System Design 8085, 8086, 8051, 8096 -

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Thursday, 24 November 2016

The world’s most innovative universities

US institutions top the inaugural Reuters Top 100 Most Innovative Universities table.

StanfordMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard have topped a new ranking of the most innovative universities.
The inaugural Top 100 Most Innovative Universities ranking from Reuters has been revealed following the publication of four top-15 tables based on innovation from Times Higher Education.
The US comes out top of Reuters’ table of 100 institutions, taking nine of the top 10 positions. The sole non-US institution is Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) in 10th place.
Imperial College London is the highest-ranked UK university in the list in 11th place, followed by the University of Cambridge in 25th and the University of Oxford in 40th.  
The ranking aims to identify which institutions contribute the most to science and technology and have the greatest impact on the global economy. It is based on 10 patent and research-related metrics, which have been compiled using proprietary data and analysis tools from the Intellectual Property and Science division of Thomson Reuters.
Elsewhere in Europe, Switzerland is a stand-out performer. With three universities on the list and a population of just over 8 million, it has more top 100 innovative universities per capita than any other country in the world. Its top institution, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, sits in 27th place.  
Japan is home to nine of the universities on the list – more than any other country except the US. Osaka University, its highest-ranked institution, is at number 18.

Reuters Top 15 Most Innovative Universities 2015 results

  Rank    Institution  Country
  1    Stanford University     United States  
  2    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)      United States  
  3    Harvard University    United States  
  4    University of Washington    United States  
  5    University of Michigan System     United States  
  6    Northwestern University    United States  
  7    University of Texas System    United States  
  8    University of Wisconsin System    United States  
  9    University of Pennsylvania    United States  
  10    Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology (KAIST)    South Korea  
  11    Imperial College London    United Kingdom  
  12    Pohang University of Science & Technology (POSTECH)    South Korea  
  13    University of California System     United States  
  14    University of Southern California    United States  
  15    University of North Carolina Chapel Hill    United States  

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Wednesday, 23 November 2016

Find a PhD: how to choose the right doctorate

Selecting the right doctorate is crucial for success. Robert MacIntosh and Kevin O'Gorman share top 10 tips on how to pick a PhD

Take your time

A doctorate is for life not just for Christmas, so avoid making rash commitments in the heat of the moment.
Don’t rush into it, but if you've been thinking about it for some time there is probably more to it than just the desire to be called doctor.
he idea of doing a PhD might have sneaked up on you or it might have been loitering with intent for a while.
One way or another you need to figure out how to move from "thinking about it" to "doing something about it". It’s not that difficult, but it not necessarily obvious because you'll need to understand how academics think.

Choose your quest

Choose a topic that genuinely fascinates you. This will sustain you in the bleak mid-winter of your doctoral quest.
Your doctorate has to be like a quest. It should be about something that you really, really want to figure out. That might seem straightforward but most people without a doctorate struggle to articulate their quest in a way that would get them a doctorate. Typically, applicants paint their quests with far too broad a brush. Something like :"I want to do a doctorate in strategy" or "I want to study social inclusion" can be simultaneously true yet woefully inadequate as a starting point for a doctoral proposal.
Doctorates are awarded on the basis of contributing something new to our existing knowledge base. Given that we have been researching and producing doctorates in management for decades and in the social sciences more generally for a lot longer, such novelty usually comes in modestly-sized packages. You’ll have to do some research in order to figure out what to research.

Try before you buy

Take multiple doctoral topics out for a first date then choose wisely. It’s a lifetime commitment.
Even if you don’t have access to a university’s library database, the wonders of GoogleScholar should allow you to dip into the literature and browse published research on the topic of your quest. Do this for four or five variants of your potential topic. Make sure to check that the academic version of your noble quest still intrigues you and that heavy research articles on the topic don’t bore you to tears. 

Mind the gap

Having chosen a broad area, identify a specific gap that is not yet fully explored in the literature. 
To pass your doctorate you will need to contribute new knowledge about your chosen topic. That means you need to be able to establish what is usually referred to as "a gap in the literature" -. something that has not yet been researched. You need to be able to articulate what previous studies have shown and use this as the means of pointing toward things that are not yet known. Helpfully, academic papers often conclude with a call for further research on something or other. This might be a useful starting point.
However, you shouldn't rely on others to solve your problem. Whenever you read anything - an article, a book, a chapter or a thesis - write out your own summary of what they've told you and what you still don't know.

Start with a researchable question

Avoid rhetorical questions or ironic provocations - make sure your question is clear, crisp and entitled to a question mark.
Good research questions help by (a) structuring your thinking and (b) suggesting ways of building a way of answering your question.

Imagine your ideal supervisor

Do you want somebody inspirational and argumentative but vague, or a highly-structured project manager who will nag you into submission?
A supervisor to supervisee relationship which will run for three years or more is fraught with potential problems and pitfalls. You don’t need to be best friends, but you do need a productive working relationship. This rest is at least as much on you and your preferences as those of a potential supervisor.

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Friday, 18 November 2016

The best universities in the world are truly global institutions – ones that attract students and scholars from all over the world and collaborate with leading departments no matter where they are based.
All of the universities that feature in our World University Rankings place internationalisation high on their agenda. But which ones are the most international?
Qatar University tops the list, which is based on the results of the “international outlook” indicator in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2015-2016, while the UK is the nation that does the best on this measure overall.
The international outlook indicator considers each institution’s proportion of international staff, proportion of international students and proportion of research papers published with at least one co-author from another country. All the institutions that feature in the top 800 of the overall 2015-2016 ranking have been considered.
Below is a list of the 200 most international universities in the world. Visit the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2015-2016 to see the results for all 800 institutions and view the full methodology.
Top 5 most international universities in the world 
 Rank  Institution  Country  International outlook  WUR 2015-2016 rank 
1Qatar UniversityQatar99.9601–800
2University of LuxembourgLuxembourg99.8=193
3University of Hong KongHong Kong99.5=44
4École Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneSwitzerland98.631
5University of GenevaSwitzerland98.5=131

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Thursday, 17 November 2016

Get your CV on top of the pile

It’s time to write that winning resume. Here are some basic guidelines.

A poorly written curriculum vitae (CV), despite the glowing achievements it may contain, will almost certainly create a negative first impression on a potential employer. After all, your CV is the initial point of contact companies have for judging how well you present yourself. Here are some basic guidelines to create the best line of communication.

Watch your length
Keep it as short and relevant as possible. Your CV should be about one to two pages — the most, three pages if you are very experienced and need to list a large number of deals and accomplishments.
There is also no need for a photograph; in fact, many employers and recruitment firms are put off by them.
List personal information
Include your name, full address, telephone numbers (day/evening/mobile), email address, and date of birth. In the event of an interview opportunity, you want to be immediately contactable.
Order your content
Keep it concise; split your CV into sections such as personal information, qualifications, employment history, and interests, in that order. Include brief, one-line explanations for any gaps in the timeline on the CV; you do not want your CV to leave any unanswered questions. Do not assume that the person reading your CV will know what you did in a role based on your job title; always include a few bullet points detailing the tasks that you covered. It is your job to educate the reader by detailing specific tasks, responsibilities, and achievements for each of your previous positions.
Prioritize your past experience
Be specific about your responsibilities in each of your roles. For every position, outline your personal achievements and include the assignments you worked on and any profit and loss generated for the business. It is also important to state the geographical coverage of your job functions — for example, market risk in Indonesia. Business coverage, such as retail or investment banking, should be explicitly mentioned too — for example, Head of Operational Risk (Global Markets). If your position requires work on multiple products or segments, mention the percentage split of your work. Any relevant work experience overseas must be listed, even a six-month posting.
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Monday, 14 November 2016

Learn About Power Theft 
And How It Can Be Curbed

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Celebrate Children's Day! 
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Sunday, 13 November 2016

New Edition Released 

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Friday, 11 November 2016

National Education Day: Why is it celebrated on November 11?

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, union minister for education in France as a guest of the government was received by French Minister of Education Jean Berthoin. Express archive photo
As a mark of respect and to commemorate the birth anniversary of freedom fighter and independent India’s first Education Minister Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the nation will be celebrating the National Education Day on November 11.

From 1947 to 1958, he served as the first education minister of the independent India.
Maulana Azad considered schools as laboratories which produce future citizens of the country and, therefore, emphasised on quality education. He strongly advocated universal primary education, girls’ education, free and compulsory education for all children upto the age of 14, vocational training and technical education.
Some facts about Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
— His real name was Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin
— In 1912, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad started a weekly journal in Urdu called Al-Hilal to increase the revolutionary recruits
— For his invaluable contribution to the nation as a freedom fighter and as an educationist, he was awarded India’s highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1992.
— He established most of the major cultural and literary academies we have today, including the Sangeet Natak Academy, Lalit Kala Academy, Sahitya Academy as well as the Indian Council for Cultural Relations.
— The first IIT, IISc, School of Planning and Architecture and the University Grants Commission were established under his tenure.
UGC has asked universities across India to celebrate November 11 as National Education Day by organising seminars, symposia, essay writing, elocution competitions, workshops and rallies with banners, cards and slogans on the importance of education and the nation’s commitment to all aspects of education.

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People Management Skills Every Manager Needs To Succeed

Success as a manager will primarily depend on Soft Skills. What is this talent that means more than experience and technical prowess ...