About The Book
CAT MATHEMATICS is designed to help you prepare for the real CAT Quantitative and Data Interpretation sections. The book emphasizes on those topics that are given maximum weightage in CAT examinations and are least covered in other books. It introduces many innovative ideas/tools/rules in each chapter to make the learning easier.
The book is organized in two parts:
» Level boost up section
» Trend section
In LEVEL BOOST UP SECTION, each of the 9 chapters is designed to initiate a CAT orientation and create a CAT momentum in the minds of the aspirants through its pedagogical aids that ultimately boost up the aptitude level.
TREND SECTION will enable you to feel the pulse of CAT before the actual CAT. It includes
• CAT Papers (2002–2008) with answers
• Trend CAT Papers (with answers) consist of questions found to be a trend during CAT 2009–2013
• Mock CAT includes test papers designed with CAT level of difficulty
• Rapid concept—Each chapter starts with a list of important concepts/theorem/rule/short cut tips to provide you an easy and all time access to important rules/concepts.
• Problem followed theory (PFT)—Each basic concept/rule/theorem is followed by a problem of CAT level. It enables you to understand the basic concept/rule clearly and also helps you to learn its application in solving actual problems.
• Check your progress—It consists of brainstorming problems with ideas different from the problems solved in PFT in order to widen the base of the aptitude level of the aspirants.
• The book also has a companion website www.phindia.com/CAT-Mathematics that contains aptitude tests and interactive exercises.
0. VEDIC MATHEMATICS
1. EXPRESSIONS, EQUATIONS AND INEQUATIONS
3. PERMUTATION AND COMBINATION
4. SEQUENCE AND SERIES
5. NUMBER SYSTEM
7. GEOMETRY AND MENSURATION
8. DATA SUFFICIENCY AND DATA INTERPRETATION
Wednesday, 27 August 2014
Monday, 25 August 2014
|About The Book
The book encapsulates all the essential aspects of relationship marketing in an easy-to-understand manner. It has been thoroughly revised and enlarged in the Second Edition and incorporates topics based on emerging concepts of marketing and technology, including relationship parameter in brand identity, service recovery paradox, adversity quotient of relationship managers, impact of social networking on customer relations, as well as applications of cloud and mobile computing in the practice of relationship marketing.
Inclusion of new and contemporary case studies from industries—Toyota logo, Removing pain points: How Coco-Colas low-cost solar cooler is helping Coke spread its wing in villages, and Mobile computing in general insurance business, provides a practical orientation to the text and help students to understand concepts of relationship marketing in the context of real-world situation. Apart from these, case assignments have been developed on various dimensions of relationship marketing.
Intended as a textbook for the postgraduate students of management, the book is equally useful for relationship managers, executives, and sales and marketing professionals.
Preface to the First Edition
1. FRAMEWORK OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING
2. CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE AND EMOTION
3. RELATIONSHIP BRANDS
4. VALUE CREATION IN RELATIONSHIP MARKETING
5. CUSTOMER EQUITY
6. STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES OF CROSS-SELLING AND UP-SELLING
7. TEMPERAMENT OF BUSINESS RELATIONS
8. MANAGING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION THROUGH QUALITY
9. CUSTOMER LOYALTY
10. MEASURING RELATIONSHIP EFFECTIVENESS
11. RELATIONSHIP MANAGER
12. TECHNOLOGY IN RELATIONSHIP MARKETING
13. VIRTUAL RELATIONSHIP MARKETING
14. CUSTOMER MANAGED RELATIONSHIP
15. RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY AND ENTERPRISE IMAGE
16. THOUGHTS ON RELATIONSHIP
17. INSTITUTES PROMOTING RELATIONSHIP MARKETING
Appendix: Marketing Glossaries
ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING MECHANICS, Third Edition by PRAKASH, M. N. SHESHA , MOGAVEER, GANESH B.
|About The Book
Imparting the basic knowledge in various facets of civil engineering and the related engineering structures and infrastructure such as buildings, roads, highways, dams and bridges, the third edition covers the engineering mechanics portion in eleven chapters. Each chapter introduces the concepts to the reader, stepwise. Providing a wealth of practice examples, the book emphasizes the importance of building strong analytical skills. Practice problems, at the end of each chapter, give students an opportunity to absorb concepts and hone their problem-solving skills.
The book comes with a companion CD containing the software developed using MS-Excel, to work out the problems on Forces, Centroid, Friction and Moment of Inertia. The use of this software will enable the students to understand the concepts in a relatively better way.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
• Updates with the latest examination Question Papers, including the one held in the month of December 2013
|Preface • Preface to the First Edition|
1. Introduction to Civil Engineering
2. Introduction to Engineering Mechanics
3. Coplanar Concurrent Force System
4. Coplanar Non-concurrent Force System
5. Equilibrium of Coplanar Concurrent Force System
6. Equilibrium of Coplanar Non-concurrent Force System
7. Plane Trusses
9. Centroid of Plane Figures
10. Moment of Inertia
Annexures • Objective Type Questions
Examination Papers of VTU
Solutions to the Examination Papers of VTU • Index
|About The Book
The text begins with a brief introduction to artificial intelligence, including application areas, its history and future, and programming. It then deals with symbolic logic, knowledge acquisition, representation and reasoning. The text also lucidly explains AI technologies such as computer vision, natural language processing, pattern recognition and speech recognition. Topics such as expert systems, neural networks, constraint programming and case-based reasoning are also discussed in the book.
In the Second Edition, the contents and presentation have been improved thoroughly and in addition six new chapters providing a simulating and inspiring synthesis of new artificial intelligence and an appendix on AI tools have been introduced.
The treatment throughout the book is primarily tailored to the curriculum needs of B.E./B.Tech. students in Computer Science and Engineering, B.Sc. (Hons.) and M.Sc. students in Computer Science, and MCA students. The book is also useful for computer professionals interested in exploring the field of artificial intelligence.
• Concepts are duly supported by examples and cases.
• Provides appendices on PROLOG, LISP and AI Tools.
• Incorporates most recommendations of the Curriculum Committee on Computer Science/Engineering for AI and Intelligent Systems.
• Exercises provided will help readers apply what they have learned.
1. Overview of Artificial Intelligence
2. Symbolic Logic
3. Knowledge Acquisition and Representation
4. Reasoning and KRR Systems
6. Search Techniques
7. AI Technologies
8. Expert Systems
9. Neural Networks
10. Case-Based Reasoning
11. Constraint Programming
12. Intelligent Agents
14. Soft Computing
16. Machine Learning
17. Intelligent Systems
18. Applications of Artificial Intelligence
D: AI Tools
|About The Book
The book exposes students to fundamental knowledge in:
• Treatment of water, polymers and composites
• Applications of surface chemistry and the concept of nuclear energy and energy storage devices
• Chemical thermodynamics and nanochemistry
• Electrochemistry and principles involved in corrosion and its inhibition, and protective coatings
• Analysis of fuels and combustion, phase rule, important analytical techniques (spectroscopy) and photochemistry
• Manufacturing processes, properties and applications of glass and cement
• Numerous short and descriptive questions at the end of each chapter to test and foster students’ conceptual understanding of the subject.
• Chapter-end problems to help students become proficient in problem-solving.
Foreword • Preface
1. Water Technology
2. Polymers and Composites
3. Surface Chemistry
4. Nuclear Energy
11. Corrosion and Corrosion Control
12. Protective Coatings
13. Fuels and Combustion
14. Phase Rule
16. Analytical Techniques (Spectroscopy)
|About The Book
Divided into 24 chapters, the book dexterously assimilates the national as well as global perspectives to enhance a broader understanding of the concepts and their applications. The chapters on Contemporary Perspectives, Economic Systems, Planning and Reform, Industrial Policies, Monetary Policy, Legal Framework, and so on, explicate the Indian business environment and its scope. Furthermore, its specialised chapters on global perspectives like International Law, International Organisations, WTO Regime, Cross-cutting Issues in International Environment, FDI, Country Risk and Political Risk Analysis, Doing Business in Select Markets, and so on affecting business in India and worldwide, are comprehensive in terms of coverage and approach.
This is purely a text intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Commerce and Management. Besides, the book is of immense use for the aspirants of civil services, officials and professionals working in government ministries, embassies in India, Indian missions abroad, Chambers of Commerce, NGOs and policy think tanks.
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE BOOK
• Each chapter commences with an opening case, which emphasises the topic of importance, and ends with a closing case that helps in satisfying a learner from the point of view of understanding the chapter.
• Several boxes are incorporated in the text, which carry practical examples and experience to support in-depth learning.
• Enormous illustrative figures, tables and exhibits make the reading more fruitful and enriching.
• Case questions and review questions help in checking the learner’s ability to understand the basic concept of the chapter.
• The text is supported by the companion website http://phindia.com/ahmed containing useful resources for the teachers and study aids for the students.
|Preface • Acknowledgements|
2. Contemporary Perspectives
3. Environmental Scanning
4. Economic Systems
5. Planning and Reform
6. Macroeconomic Indicators
7. Industrial Policies
8. Fiscal Policy
9. Monetary Policy
10. Balance of Payments
11. Money and Capital Markets
12. Legal Framework
13. Principles of International Law for Business
14. International Organisations
15. Models and Frameworks of International Trade
16. Internationalisation of Firms
17. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
18. Trends in Global Trade and Economic Integration
19. The WTO Regime
20. Major Provisions under WTO
21. Cross-cutting Issues in International Environment
22. Foreign Exchange Risk and Exposures
23. Country Risk and Political Risk Analysis
24. Doing Business in Select Markets
Suggested Readings • Index
|About The Book
This book has been thoroughly class-room tested and based on course notes which is primarily intended for undergraduate and postgraduate students of electrical engineering.
• Pedagogical tools like figures, flowcharts, block diagrams and tables have been extensively used
• Review questions are given at the end of each chapter
• Extensive references to literature on power system protection
1. Evolution of Power System Protection and the Emerge of Digital Relaying
2. Digital Signal Processing Basics and Architecture of Numerical Relay
3. Algorithms Based on Undistorted Single Frequency Sine Wave
4. Algorithms Based on Solution of Differential Equation
5. Algorithms Based on Least Squared Error (LSQ)
6. Discrete Fourier Transform
7. FFT and Goertzel Algorithm
8. Windowing and Spectral Leakage
9. Introduction to Digital Filtering
10. Digital Filter Design
12. Removal of DC Offset
Appendix • References
|About The Book
The book develops an intuitive understanding of the basic principles of machines and mechanisms in the areas of manufacturing processes, prime movers and thermal engineering. Numerous illustrative examples are provided to fortify these concepts throughout. The book provides the students a feel for applications of fundamental principles of mechanical engineering in the areas of steam boilers, internal combustion engines, refrigeration and air conditioning, and to devices such as turbines, pumps and robotics.
No book on basic mechanical engineering is complete without an introduction to materials science. The text covers the treatment of the common engineering materials, highlighting their properties and applications.
The text features several fully worked-out examples and numerical problems with answers for the relevant topics, large number of end-of-chapter review questions and multiple choice questions, which all enhance the value of the text to the students.
This book is prescribed in Visvesvaraya Technological University.
3. STEAM FORMATION
4. STEAM BOILERS
5. STEAM TURBINES
6. GAS TURBINES
7. WATER TURBINES
8. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
10. MACHINE TOOL OPERATIONS
11. ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION
12. ENGINEERING MATERIALS
13. SOLDERING, BRAZING AND WELDING
14. REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
|Author Name||MANGLIK, V. K.|
|About Author||V.K. MANGLIK
started his academic career as a lecturer in mechanical engineering in a
government engineering college and subsequently served as Assistant
Professor at the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. He then
joined the Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad, where he
worked for 30 years in research and development of national and
international projects. After superannuation, he joined the academic
profession again. Currently, he is working at Indus Institute of
Technology and Engineering, Ahmedabad (recently upgraded to the status
of INDUS University by the Government of Gujarat).|
Prof. Manglik has about 20 years of academic experience of teaching graduate and postgraduate students, guiding postgraduate students for dissertations, conducting seminars and conferences at national level, and developing laboratories. He has worked in various capacities and have about 10 years of academic experience as professor. He has published/presented 33 research papers in national and international journals/conferences. He is a member of Automobile Society (India).
|About The Book
The book explains physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo, in detail.
The text embodies a new insight into immunological concepts in simple, straightforward and comprehensive language with lucid and clear illustrations. It covers up-to-date information on immunoprophylactic, immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic methods.
The neatly drawn figures complement the theories well, enabling the students to grasp the concepts readily. The Review Questions at the end of the chapters help the students to think critically and answer. The book also incorporates competitive examination questions.
The book is intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Biotechnology, Zoology, Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology. Besides, the book will be equally beneficial for the students appearing for competitive examinations like UGCNET, CSIR, SLET and civil services.
Part I BASIC IMMUNOLOGY
Unit I Introduction
Chapter 1 Introduction: Immunity
Unit II Organs, Cells and Molecules of Immune System
Chapter 2 Lymphoid Organs
Chapter 3 Lymphoid Cells
Chapter 4 Antigen
Chapter 5 Structure of Antibody
Chapter 6 Functions of Antibodies
Chapter 7 Immunoglobulin Gene and Its Expression
Chapter 8 Major Histocompatibility Complex
Chapter 9 Complement
Chapter 10 Cytokines
Unit III Differentiation of T and B Cells
Chapter 11 T Cell Maturation, Differentiation and Activation
Chapter 12 B Cell Differentiation, Maturation and Activation
Unit IV Normal and Abnormal Immune Response
Chapter 13 Antigen Recognition, Processing and Presentation
Chapter 14 Cell-mediated Immune Response
Chapter 15 Humoral Immune Response
Chapter 16 Regulation of Antibody Synthesis
Chapter 17 Hypersensitivity
Chapter 18 Immunological Tolerance
Chapter 19 Autoimmunity
Chapter 20 Organ Transplantation
Chapter 21 Immunodeficiency
Unit V Immunity to Infection and Cancer
Chapter 22 Immunity to Viral Infections
Chapter 23 Immunity to Bacterial Infections
Chapter 24 Immunity to Fungal Infection
Chapter 25 Immunity to Protozoan Parasites
Chapter 26 Immunity to Helminth Parasites
Chapter 27 Immunity to Cancer
Part II APPLIED IMMUNOLOGY
Unit VI Immuno Prophylaxis Immunotechniques and Immunotherapy
Chapter 28 Vaccines and Vaccination
Chapter 29 Immunotechnology
Chapter 30 Monoclonal Antibodies
Chapter 31 Immunotherapy
|Author Name||BEGUM, FATHIMUNISA|
|About Author||Fathimunisa Begum, formerly Reader, Department of Zoology, Holy Cross College, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. Having over four decades of teaching experience, Dr. Fathimunisa Begum has also been guiding many research scholars in the fields of Biotechnology, Zoology and Bioinformatics. She has published many papers in national and international journals.|
|About The Book
A New Approach to SAP Implementation
Structured dialog :The dialog between the consultant and the users should be based on the structure of this book. The consultant would demonstrate a business transaction, e.g. goods receipt, in its simplest form. He would then explain the data items on the screens, their meaning and significance. He would enquire whether the data item is relevant for the client company. The data items that are not relevant can be hidden in the implementation, and related configuration marked as not required. When the consultant would come to a section explaining IMG node, his questions to the user would be designed to collect the information required to configure that node.
Prototyping :As the structured dialog continues, the consultant would go on doing the configuration. By the end of the dialog, the consultant would have built a company-specific prototype.
Training and trials :The prototype would be a rough-cut implementation of SAP for the company. It would be used for training the users. After training, the users would try out the system. They would perform routine transactions several times using real-life data of their company. They would try different scenarios and record their observations.
Refinement :After prototype trials, the consultant and the users would sit together to discuss what the users required to do, but could not do with the prototype. The consultant would use this input to refine the prototype and to build new functionality, if needed.
Configuration manual :The documentation of SAP implementation includes a configuration manual. This configuration manual should be structured on the lines of this book as explained in Chapter 34. Such a configuration manual will be easy to understand as it groups logically related elements together.
User manual :This book will serve as a generic user manual. Company-specific user manual can also be structured on the lines of this book including only company-specific guidelines for the users.
Other SAP MM Book by the Author
• SAP MM Purchasing: Technical Reference and Learning Guide
SAP Customizing Implementation Guide
Reasons for ‘why not covered’
1. Enterprise Structure
3. Goods and Accounts Movement
5. Goods Receipt
6. Goods Issue
7. Goods Return
8. Stock Transfer
9. Transfer Posting
10. Customer Returns
12. Consignment Stock of Vendor
13. Consignment Stock with Customer
14. Project Stock
15. Sales Order Stock
16. Pipeline Material
17. Returnable Transport Packaging of Vendor
18. Returnable Transport Packaging with Customer
19. Goods Movement Reversal
20. Screen Layout
21. Movement Type and Other Configurations
22. Material Document
23. Accounting Documents
24. Output Determination
25. Material Valuation
26. Account Determination
27. Stock Determination
29. Physical Inventory
30. Financial Accounting
32. Periodic Processing
City without Traffic Lights
|Author Name||AGRAWAL, P. K.|
|About Author||P.K. AGRAWAL has over three decades of experience in several areas of Industrial Engineering and Information Technology. He received his Bachelor’s degree from IIT Kharagpur, and his Postgraduate Diploma from NITIE, Mumbai. He is an out-of-the-box thinker. He has also written a series books on SAP HR module.|
Saturday, 16 August 2014
Monday, 11 August 2014
Friday, 8 August 2014
|About The Book|
Creations of mind can vary in its form—from a brilliant thought to a gizmo gadget to a popular fiction—all come under the legal term called Intellectual Property. In the world of upheaval technology, where information on anything and everything is freely available and accessible, guarding these intellectual properties legally becomes a prerequisite.
This book comprehensively discusses how to manage and secure the intellectual property and the legal norms associated with it. The book begins with introducing the concepts related to Intellectual Property and the WTO Agreement. The following chapters explain various types of Intellectual Property Rights such as Patents, Copyrights, Trade Marks, Industrial Designs, Integrated Circuits, and Geographical Indications. These chapters also provide in-depth and detailed insight on regulations and procedures for protection of Intellectual Property Rights.
The book further explicates the creation of Intellectual Property and spells out the conceptual framework for creativity and innovation. Management of Intellectual Property is as important as its creation, and therefore the concluding chapters describe the activities for management and commercialization of Intellectual Property Rights, and the emerging issues surrounding them. Two separate cases have been added at the end of the book, to provide an analytical insight of the subject to the students.
The book is meant for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of management and technology. Besides, the book can be useful for theundergraduate students of law as a ready reference.
1. Introduction to Intellectual Property and World Trade Organization
2. Fundamentals of Patent
3. Transfer and Infringement of Patent Rights
5. Trade Marks
6. Industrial Designs and IC Layout Design
7. Geographical Indications
8. Creating Intellectual Property
9. Intellectual Property Management
10. Emerging Issues in IPR
Case Study 1 Research and Development in India
Case Study 2 Apple versus Samsung Patent Dispute
Wednesday, 6 August 2014
|About The Book
• Part 1 contains basic knowledge required to understand the subject i.e. Matrix operations, Methods for solving equations and concepts of flexibility matrix and stiffness matrix methods.
• Part 2 deals with the applications of stiffness and flexibility matrix methods using system approach. By taking simple examples, the steps involved in both the methods are discussed and it is concluded why stiffness matrix method is more suitable for analysis of skeletal structures.
• Part 3 covers the Stiffness matrix (displacement) method with member approach (direct Stiffness method) which is extensively used in the analysis of framed structures. It gives the details of the method, the steps involved in the method and its application to plane truss, space truss, beams, plane and space frames and grids.
• Part 4 includes a unified computer program written in FORTRAN/C for the analysis of framed structure. The development of computer program, explanation of various subroutines, input output formats with examples is given in this section. An accompanying CD with the book contains source code, explanation of INPUT/OUTPUT and test examples.
Though, the concepts have been presented in quite general form so that the book serves as a learning aid for students with different educational backgrounds as well as the practicing engineers, the primary objective is to present the subject matter in a simple manner so that the book can serve as a basic learning tool for undergraduate and postgraduate students of civil engineering.
Part 1 Basics
2. Matrix Algebra
3. Solution of Equations
4. Stiffness and Flexibility
Part 2 Structure (System) Approach
5. Flexibility Matrix Method
6. Stiffness Matrix Method
Part 3 Stiffness Matrix Method: Member Approach
7. Basic Steps of Stiffness Method
9. Plane Truss
10. Plane Frames
12. Space Trusses and Space Frames
13. Additional Topics
Part 4 Educational Program
14. Computer Program and Illustrative Examples
A: Methods to Find Deflections
B: Slopes and Deflections in Beams
C: Fixed End Forces in Beams
D: Properties of Plane Areas
Monday, 4 August 2014
|About The Book
would serve as a standard textbook on the subject of Industrial
Marketing, and thus, will be useful for students of management. This
book is aimed at providing better conceptual understanding of the
industrial marketing, as well as, enhancing the skills required in its
The book begins with the review of fundamentals of marketing, concepts in industrial marketing, industrial marketing environment, gathering market intelligence, organisational buying behaviour, and segmentation and positioning in industrial marketing.
Then, it goes on to give an insightful analysis of product mix, price mix, marketing channels, marketing control, and project marketing. The text concludes with a discussion on commercial terms, clauses and documents involved in the practice of industrial marketing. The text provides eleven case studies which lend a practical flavour to it, and illustrate the concepts discussed.
• Explains commercial clauses and contents of documents.
• Explains difference between product marketing and project marketing.
• Provides questions at the end of every chapter.
Interspersed with real-life examples, this book should also prove very handy to the practicing manager.
New to this edition
• Keeping in mind the importance of case studies for both the students, as well as, practitioners, four new cases have also been added in this edition.
• Besides, material is added in most of the chapters to discuss some topics in more detail, or some sub-topic which were missing in the earlier edition.
• Problem questions added at the end of the chapters will help the students to understand the practical applications of marketing concepts in real business world.
• The concepts are supported by real-life examples, diagrams and tables to reinforce the understanding of the subject-matter.
1. Review of Marketing Fundamentals
2. Concept of Industrial Marketing
3. Industrial Marketing Environment
4. Gathering Marketing Intelligence
5. Organisational Buying Behaviour
6. Industrial Market Segmentation, Target Marketing and Positioning
7. Managing Product Mix
8. Managing Price Mix
9. Managing Marketing Channels
10. Managing Promotional Mix
11. Negotiating Sales Deals
12. Key Account Management
13. Marketing Control
14. Marketing Mix for Project Marketing
15. Commonly Used Commercial Clauses
16. Commonly Used Commercial Documents
1. Resistance Welders India Limited
2. Compressed Systems India Limited—Adopting Project Marketing
3. EU Tyres
4. Electric Motors India Limited
5. Chapman Variators Private Limited
6. Brown Solar Pumps Limited
7. Inter Air Limited
8. Automated Solutions Private Limited: Doing Business with Government Organisation
9. Electric Motocomp Private Limited
10. Protective Coatings India Limited
11. Fast Operating Epoxies-Market Potential Analysis
|Author Name||PHADTARE, MILIND T.|
|About Author||Milind T. Phadtare,
PhD (Marketing Management) is Senior Professor and Dean of the School
of General Management at National Institute of Construction Management
and Research (NICMAR), Pune. Prior to re-joining NICMAR in 2011, he was
the ONGC Chair Professor of Strategic Management and Area Chair of
Marketing at Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad. He has
received the ‘Excellence for Teaching’ award twice from NICMAR; once in
2005 and second time in 2012. He has also published two books and 15
papers in peer reviewed national and international journals. Having
fifteen years of industrial experience, Dr. Phadtare is also involved
in consulting assignments for many industrial houses.|
He has conducted more than fifty management development programmes, and also taken sessions in various programmes meant for senior management personnel.
Success as a manager will primarily depend on Soft Skills. What is this talent that means more than experience and technical prowess ...