Sunday, 24 October 2021

Wave Optics by Garg et al

Some of the major deficiencies of Indian higher education include:

  1. the scarcity of well-written textbooks authored by reputed professors and published by highly rated publishers,
  2. use of help books by students to pass examination and 
  3. over-emphasis on rote learning with little or no training on problem-solving. 

To improve the quality of education, it is essential to make good books available at a reasonable cost. The latest research and learning theories suggest that outcome-based learning with interactive text in-text questions and practice problems should provide a way to engage an average student in the learning process and enhance her/his learning experiences. Similarly, mastery in problem-solving is mandatory for nurturing creativity. This, no doubt, is a challenging task.

These ideas formed the basis of our work when we began to develop the manuscript of our book on Wave Optics, one of the most fascinating courses taught to undergraduate science students of major/honours and general degree programmes. We aimed to empower learners and enable them to see its principles at work and develop problem-solving skills by interspersing problems with graded difficulty levels throughout the text. 

A conscious effort was made to help learners apply theoretical knowledge to real-life problems and phenomena with the hope that the book's utility would be considerably enhanced. As we now know, the emergence of lasers, holography and fiber optics in recent years led to applications in communication, optical computing and medicine. Moreover, their applications have found revolutionary applications in space science, geospatial imaging, and cryptography in space, defence, agriculture, medicine, and mineralogy. We were conscious that a sound knowledge of their fundamental principles and developments would immensely enhance the utility of our textbook. The Wave Optics by Suresh Garg, Sanjay Gupta and CK Ghosh, published by PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, fulfils many of these requirements and should be extremely useful to Indian students. Some of its salient features are:

  • Comprehensive coverage of the syllabi of all major universities as well as the new UGC syllabus
  • Rigorous treatment of subject matter while retaining a learner-friendly approach
  • Several in-text pedagogical questions, solved examples and practice problems to support self-learning.

It is said that a diagram is worth a thousand words. With faith in this dictum, we have tried to explain concepts using diagrams as and where required.

Happy Reading!

To know more about the book, please log on to:

Sunday, 10 October 2021


ERPs are here to stay and seen as a standard option for enterprises. Enterprises could be Small, Medium or large. Appetite for ERPs – whether homegrown or off-the-shelf products is a necessity. Reasons for looking at ERPs are simple, and some of them are: Enterprises would like to borrow the best practices developed in some of the available products in the market instead of reinventing the wheels, have integrated business processes to derive a single version of the truth on information, businesses are always meant to scale, and hence, intended products are expected to be robust, scalable, and secured.

ERP implementations are seen to be a strategic move, and important stakeholders of the organizations, namely, Head of Organization, Business Owners, Head of Finance and IT must be involved in monitoring and guiding the project team from time to time.  

Selecting a product is always a tricky proposition and must be done in a careful manner. Few important takeaways from the well-known implementations are: look at the installed base of the product in the region, support, availability of skill sets within the organization, training and learning curve etc. 

The next important concern and step are to have an implementation partner. It is often seen implementation partner is selected based on the cost, market reputation etc. I personally feel the most important part of the selection is to see the domain expertise of the implementation partner so that effective communication with the businesses can be established. Does the implementation partner have a relevant knowledge base on the domain so that customers can benefit from the same? Therefore, interviewing partner and their team members from these dimensions becomes a crucial parameter.  

Implementation of ERPs is a daunting task, and hence, motivating internal as well as external team members is imperative. We often do this by creating internal team-building exercises, bringing external speakers on motivation, and giving them an off-site environment. Hence, allocating a suitable budget for these activities well in advance (ideally during kick-off) may not be a great surprise to stakeholders. 

Before we go to other trivial steps, namely, data migration and testing, let me take another important aspect of effective communication during the entire implementation life cycle. We must design a communication deck well in advance and distribute and present it to relevant leaders. Communication must include progress, risk and mitigation plans, roadblocks and expectations from management etc. There could be certain facts to be communicated only to top leadership, and project owners must be bold to communicate effectively and with possible suggestions.

Data migration and testing are trivial steps of any implementation. Generally, it is seen that organizations force a team to migrate whatever crap exist in the old system to be migrated to ERP.  There are many suggestions on the data migration, and some are: One can migrate data which is required for statutory assessment (let us take of last 6 – years) and rest put it on Data Warehouse and build Analytics layer, Bank and Insurance companies can look at only live policies of past 30+ years and rest put on analytics layer for an internal team to respond. As far as possible, do not migrate old videos or audio files as it is. One can look at the option of creating a BIG DATA environment. 

Testing is divided into 2 phases, namely, Integration and Model Office Testing. Integration testing is to ensure all the modules are tightly integrated and producing desired results. Model Office testing is in case enterprise have third-party products; ERP has developed interfaces with the product and organization can not function unless they handshake well. Therefore, model office testing is imperative. 

Last but not least, technical and functional documentation will be the treasure of all the above efforts. Good documentation will serve the current team and help the process manual for the organization, and annual audits can also take the help of process audits, etc. Technical documentation is a useful tool for maintenance, next upgrades – major or minor etc. On-going maintenance of documentation is a must. I always recommend an audit of documentation to ensure they are updated regularly in line with the embedded or changed processes. 

Needless to say, many organizations seem to be celebrating ‘Go live’ in a grand way. Acknowledging project team members with proper achievement certificates and awards to motivate them will add employee delight and encouragement. 

Beyond ERPs

The fun begins after about six months to one year of implementation where-in the leadership team expect quick reports, would like to see a design and engineering needs to be addressed in the latest implemented ERP. Appetite for computing grows, and ERP seems to be having limitations. 

This is going to be an interesting and challenging situation for the existing IT team to look at beyond ERP, and some of the reasons are: user requirements are not adequately addressed in current ERP and to fulfil separate licensing and implementation costs to be incurred with long-drawn timelines, implemented ERP is not meant of new intended requirement etc.    Noted business requirements which are beyond existing ERP implementations are Analytics (dashboards, data mining, predictive analytics etc.), Document, Design and Employee Collaborations, Customer Relationship Management, Demand Forecast Planning, High-tech engineering and design solutions to emulate real-life situations (for example, 5D, 6D modelling), Estimation and Risk modelling, automating repetitive tasks etc. 

To address the above business needs, one must research carefully various technologies available in the market in the field of collaboration, content management, analytics, design and engineering, business process automation, estimation and risk modelling. Some of them are available in the SAAS platform, and a few are on-premise as well.  

Most of the Systems Integrators (SI), namely, IBM, HP, Microsoft, AUTODESK etc. are well equipped with the above technologies, and more importantly, they are well integrated with well-known ERPs. There are open-source products available with the support and can also be integrated with ERPs. 

One caution of implementing the above technologies by interfacing with ERP is IT security, and most of the applications are exposed to the outside world. Therefore, addressing security framework is of paramount importance to the organization and must be addressed with proper assessment and recommended to audit the entire environment periodically.

Needless to emphasize, success in implementing extended technologies have to be planned with a partner who possesses the right skills, and the next key for success is not to take too many initiatives in one go…ideally one key initiative at any point in time!!

To understand general implementation methodologies as well as specific methodologies prescribed by Oracle and SAP for the implementation of their products, explore our book ERP TO E2RP: A CASE STUDY APPROACH by Desai and Srivastava.

For more information, please visit ERP TO E2RP : A CASE STUDY APPROACH

Sandeep Desai — The author of book ERP TO E2RP: A CASE STUDY APPROACH




Sunday, 3 October 2021

Accounting More Important Than Ever During Pandemic

Accounting being the language of business has always played a significant role in every economy of the world. The increasing significance of accounting in a digital world during pandemic COVID 19 has become a debatable issue among students, academicians, professionals and industry experts. The accountants have played a considerable role in managing the funds of businesses during this great pandemic. The analytical skills and ability of accountants have made accounting really a highly demanding profession during the great pandemic COVID 19. Accountants and corporate finance professionals have helped organizations a lot by increasing effectiveness by comparing pricing scenarios, evaluating investment opportunities and looking for new ways to curtail operating expenses. 

Due to the emergent degree and interval of the pandemic, organizations have been experiencing circumstances associated with a general financial recession due to financial market volatility, fading credit, liquidity concern, additional increase in government interference, growing unemployment, turn down in consumer discretionary expenditure, rising inventory level, less production due to reduced demand, layoffs and other reshuffling activities.  To save the economies from this crisis, accounting has been playing a beautiful role in the current scenario by serving the best interests of entrepreneurs, creditors, investors, employees, management, government and others. It has helped to gauge the financial health, profitability, viability and consistency of business organizations. As a fundamental and comprehensive tool, it has supported every organization to achieve the aim of value maximization.

With this aim, the importance of talented and steadfast financial accountants have heightened during times of financial upheaval. Even during uncertain times, the business community has to look to accountants for their analytical insights and their stewardship of corporate finance.

To cope up with the challenges of this global pandemic, the book Basic Accounting provides an in-depth knowledge of accounting concepts, procedures and techniques which are a must for accounting as well as non-accounting professionals. 

The book covers the most important topics like preparation of final accounts, the rectification of errors, Bank reconciliation statement, depreciation, computerized accounting, fund flow statement, cash flow statement, accounts of non-trading organizations and sources of finance as well as share capital also. This book fosters a firm understanding of these topics to help finance managers as well as accountants to effectively hold the revenues and funds of organizations.

The book has been especially designed for undergraduate students of computer application (BCA) and business administration (BBA). It also proved to be of immense value to the postgraduate students of business administration (MBA).

Visit to have a glimpse of the book and its detailed contents. 

Click to purchase it.

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